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Langston Hughes Discovers D.H. Lawrence: The Armenian and Other Examples of Influence

Matthew McNees
p. 207-223

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1Leo Hamalian begins his essay, “D.H. Lawrence and Black Writers,” by declaring,

  • 1 Hamalian discusses five authors in order to establish Lawrence’s influence on major facets of their (...)

As unlikely as it may seem at first, one of the important influences on black American poets and novelists of the 1940s and 1950s was D.H. Lawrence. We may wonder what there was in the work of this prickly, consumptive son of an English collier that could have appealed to the chief figures of this period […] and why they found him so relevant to their concerns. (579)1

2Perhaps Lawrence’s influence on black American writers should not seem quite so surprising. In D.H. Lawrence’s Literary Inheritors, Keith Cushman and Dennis Jackson explain Lawrence’s appeal:

Lawrence’s voice, one of the strongest in twentieth century literature, speaks to us resoundingly. He registers confidence and self-assurance, and tells us boldly what he has to say, demanding our full attention. Lawrence is the great enemy of complacency, spurring us to ask difficult questions about love and power, about the society we have constructed, about the mysterious universe we inhabit, above all about ourselves. (Cushman and Jackson 4)

3The American poet, playwright and fiction writer Langston Hughes, like Lawrence a restless wanderer, discovered D.H. Lawrence’s short fiction while in Moscow in 1933. Then and there Lawrence’s influence on Langston Hughes began, resulting in a new direction for the American literary canon. Best known for his role as the preeminent poet of the Harlem Renaissance, Hughes had firmly established his reputation with the publication of his early volumes of poetry, The Weary Blues (1926) and Fine Clothes to the Jew (1927). Hughes’ only novel, Not Without Laughter (1930), is a modified Bildungsroman that traces the life of Sandy, a young, reticent mulatto, based loosely on Hughes’ own youth and young adulthood in the American Midwest. Hughes’ first short story collection, The Ways of White Folks, was published in 1934 as a direct result of Hughes’ encounter with the short fiction of D.H. Lawrence in 1933. His early poetry and fiction, dating from this highly creative ten-year period, comprise the lion’s share of his best-known work.

4In this essay, I will begin with Langston Hughes’ own account of his debt to D.H. Lawrence, presented in his second autobiography, I Wonder as I Wander (1956). Next, I will outline the critical attempts to explain this seemingly incongruous influence, and I will contextualize Hughes’ stance on race in America. Finally, I will demonstrate how Hughes rewrites Lawrence’s short story “Mother and Daughter.” Specifically, Langston Hughes translates Lawrence’s parental power struggle into an American racial context. Although this maneuver may seem odd, the evidence suggests that Hughes was freed by Lawrence’s posthumous short story collection, The Lovely Lady, and thereby “dar[es] to say what [he] had never been able to say so definitively before” (Rampersad 290).

5The transformative act that gave one of America’s most important black writers the confidence to speak in bold new ways about race might be explained using the terms of Bloomian influence. However, the initial anxiety of Bloom’s theory, clinamen and poetic misprision or misinterpretation, does not apply to Hughes’ relationship with Lawrence’s stories. In his touchstone work, The Anxiety of Influence (1973), Bloom contends that we should “give up the failed enterprise of seeking to ‘understand’ any single poem as an entity in itself” and instead “read any poem as its poet’s deliberate misinterpretation, as a poet, of a precursor poem or of poetry in general.” (Bloom uses “poetry” as a stand-in for canonical literature in general.) Hughes was free to learn from and use Lawrence because Lawrence was so different from Hughes; there was no “anxiety.” Instead, Hughes’ rewritings of Lawrence’s stories reflect his kinship with Lawrence’s insistence on individual freedom, as stated above in Cushman and Jackson’s explanation of Lawrence’s appeal to later writers. As old-fashioned as it might sound, Lawrence “spoke to” Langston Hughes because of the Englishman’s emphasis on life as opposed to art or beauty.

6Hughes explains Lawrence’s influence on The Ways of White Folks in I Wonder as I Wander in a chapter titled “D.H. Lawrence Between Us.” A young woman named Natasha liked to visit Hughes as often as she could, but he wanted to be rid of her so that he could work in solitude. Meanwhile, Hughes discovered The Lovely Lady:

  • 2 [...] one to The American Mercury, one to Scribner’s Fiction Parade, and one to Esquire.”

It was Marie Seton’s loan of D.H. Lawrence that started me off writing short stories in Moscow. I had no thought of doing so. But I am glad it happened that way because I sent my first three stories from Russia to an agent in New York, and by the time I had got to America he had sold all three2 […] The money came in handy. And once I started, I wrote almost nothing but short stories. (I Wonder 221)

7Marie Seton loaned D.H. Lawrence’s collection to Langston Hughes not too long after it was published in January of 1933. By 1934, Hughes’ had published his own collection, The Ways of White Folks.

8While Lawrence may have have inspired Hughes more emotionally than stylistically, Hughes himself reveals his close proximity to Lawrence. Again in his autobiography, Hughes acknowledges Lawrence’s direct influence on his short stories:

When in Moscow I started writing intensively [as a result of reading The Lovely Lady], I really did not want to be bothered with an almost nightly female visitor. On the other hand, I hated to be rude to Natasha and say “Go home.” But another and more possessive “Lovely Lady” from D.H. Lawrence’s stories had come between us. (I Wonder 221)

9Strikingly, Hughes connects Lawrence’s influence to his own ability to write successfully on racial themes:

A night or two after I had read the Lawrence stories, I sat down to write an Izvestia article on Tashkent when, instead, I began to write a short story. I had been saying to myself all day, “If D.H. Lawrence can write such psychologically powerful accounts of folks in England, that send shivers up and down my spine, maybe I could write stories like his about folks in America. I wonder.” (I Wonder 220)

10Critics have picked up on D.H. Lawrence’s influence as a connection between Langston Hughes’ self-imposed exile in Russia and his return to the United States. Kate A. Baldwin explains that Lawrence’s influence on Hughes went beyond mere genre and pathos “because Hughes’s encounter with Lawrence’s The Lovely Lady had the marked effect of a bridge between his recorded experiences in Uzbekistan and his writing about race relations in the United States” (Baldwin 127).

11As Hughes continues his explanation of D.H. Lawrence’s influence in his autobiography, he discusses this notion of exploratory “wondering”:

It never occurred to me to write short stories before, other than the enforced compositions of college English. But in wondering, I began to think about some of the people in my own life, and some of the tales I had heard from others, that affected me in the same hair-raising manner as did the characters and situations in D.H. Lawrence’s two stories concerning possessive people like the lovely lady and neglective people like the parents of the “Rocking Horse Winner.” (I Wonder 220-21)

12Even given Hughes’ explicit acknowledgment of Lawrence’s influence, the translation of Lawrence’s characters in The Lovely Lady into Hughes’ explorations of mulatto racial relations in The Ways of White Folks is not easy to grasp. Perhaps this is why Leo Hamalian claims, concerning Hughes and Lawrence, that “a sense of spiritual kinship was possible between writers of very different milieus and very different cultures” (596). Jane Olmsted believes that “Lawrence’s direct criticisms in fiction of the bourgeois privileged” led to the way in which Hughes’ collection of short stories “seems to have pulled into sharp focus a significant perspective about modern black-white relations” (68). Hans Ostrom also recognizes that “the unabashed directness of social criticism in The Ways of White Folks shows Lawrence’s influence” (5-6). As Ostrom explains,

  • 3 The choice of the phrase “chemical reaction” comes from Hughes’ own theorizing in “Father and Son” (...)

[...] the general growth of Hughes’s political awareness fused with the specific example of Lawrence’s fiction to create a literary “chemical reaction”; this produced not only many of the stories in Hughes’s first book of short fiction, but with them the bold realization that stories might be situated and/or reflect an idea of social conscience in a particular moment in history. (Ostrom 6)3

13As Hughes states in I Wonder as I Wander, Lawrence’s Lovely Lady collection inspired him to apply something he saw in Lawrence to his homeland. Lawrence’s stories seem to have convinced Hughes that short fiction was the appropriate genre to continue his exploration of racial themes in America.

14The Ways of White Folks is perhaps the greatest achievement in short fiction to emerge from the Harlem Renaissance. Its title alludes to W.E.B. DuBois’ The Souls of Black Folks. Each of the fourteen stories explores racial themes. Most commonly, Hughes’ characters are, like Hughes himself, mulattos placed within a social hierarchy run by whites. The plots are complicated by young black mothers whose problematic role as mother to a mulatto creates seemingly irreconcilable problems in American society. Stark social contrasts between black workers and white owners and the effects of relationships between blacks as they move in and out of whiteness also play a prominent role in The Ways of White Folks. Hughes’ collection is an attempt to blur racial lines. The settings themselves are often undefined, as evidenced in the opening story: “Melton was one of those miserable in-between little places” (3). Another story, “Passing,” opens with Jack’s apology to his mother for not recognizing her when passing her on the street, simultaneously creating a setting and a theme that complicate race (49-50).

15Hughes explains the genesis of The Ways of White Folks in I Wander as I Wonder. He cites “The Lovely Lady” and “The Rocking-Horse Winner” as the two Lovely Lady stories that particularly “affected” him. As has been noted by Hughes’ biographer Arnold Rampersad, the “possessive” Pauline Attenborough in Lawrence’s “The Lovely Lady” and the “neglective” parents of the boy in “The Rocking-Horse Winner” (I Wander 221) reminded Hughes of his recently ended arrangement with Charlotte Osgood Mason. As “Godmother,” she had been his patron for several years. While she had helped him tremendously, he resented her attempts to tell him what to write and to control his writing schedule.

16At heart, Hughes’ collection is in keeping with his most well-known statements about race from the 1920s. In “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain” (1926) Hughes emphasizes African American individuality:

We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn’t matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly too… We build our temples for tomorrow, strong as we know how, and we stand on top of the mountain free within ourselves.

17Hughes’ statements in this essay came shortly after his initial success as a poet with the publication of The Weary Blues. The stories of The Ways of White Folks lack this optimism.

18Lawrence’s The Lovely Lady collection was published posthumously in 1932. It includes eight late, previously uncollected stories written between 1924 and 1929. The book’s themes and subjects vary widely. The collection places Lawrence’s famous ghost stories, “The Lovely Lady” and “The Rocking-Horse Winner,” amidst the societal, courtship tales of “Rawdon’s Roof,” “Mother and Daughter” and “The Blue Moccasins.” “The Overtone” ominously depicts several ruminations on love and death, and “Things” is a “critique of idealism” (Poplawski 397). The collection is rounded out with the “mock fairy tale or fable” (Poplawski 383) of “The Man Who Loved Islands.”

19From Lawrence’s rather miscellaneous collection, “Mother and Daughter” undoubtedly inspired Hughes’ “Father and Son.” In “Mother and Daughter,” Virginia Bodoin and her mother, Rachel Bodoin, live together, although they have lived separately before. Virginia’s mother has been the main cause of the recent failure of her relationship with her fiancé. Rachel, who has been unable to advise her daughter in ensuing romantic match-making attempts, begins to think of her as a continuation of her difficult father. When Virginia enters into a relationship with a sixty-year-old Armenian, Arnault, the resulting conflict between her and her mother catalyzes their final reaction away from each other.

20Hughes’ title obviously derives from Lawrence. In “Father and Son,” Hughes transforms the socially powerful Mrs. Bodoin into the culturally powerful Colonel Norwood. He borrowed the power struggle between Mrs. Bodoin and her daughter from Lawrence’s story and transformed it into the sort of familial power struggle found throughout The Ways of White Folks created by the presence of mulatto children. Discussing “Mother and Daughter,” David Ellis asserts that “Lawrence sides with the younger generation against the old” (415). This siding with the young is at the heart of Hughes’ connection with Lawrence’s stories.

21The power struggle in “Father and Son” is between Bert and his father Colonel Norwood. Bert is the mulatto son of the Colonel and Cora, one of his former slaves, who has been his mistress for 30 years. Although the Colonel has given him more leisure, education, and general preferment compared to any black indentured worker, Bert remains dissatisfied with his ultimately second-rate status. Hughes points out that without a true outward display of paternal love from the Colonel, Bert has nothing. Situated in the early twentieth-century, the situation is irreconcilable: neither Bert nor Colonel Norwood is able to compromise. The story ends with “no heirs,” suggesting an incomplete resolution to both the American “negro question” as well as Langston Hughes’ collection of stories. As the final story in the book, “Father and Son” leaves the reader awaiting the Colonel’s funeral. His has son murdered him. Then Bert was left in the hands of a white mob who lynched him.

22While Virginia’s struggles to free herself from her mother’s domination in Lawrence’s “Mother and Daughter” lead to a less severe outcome, Virginia and her mother’s separation ultimately is brought on by a character that must have deeply interested Langston Hughes. As Mrs. Bodoin’s plan to marry Virginia begins to fail, Virginia finds a perverse fiancé in Mr. Arnault, an Armenian entrepreneur who capitalizes on Virginia’s desire to leave her mother. For most readers, little seems heroic in Lawrence’s Armenian. Mrs. Bodoin refers to him as “The Turkish Delight.” An overweight “patriarch” of a grandfather, he sits “like a toad” (VG 116). Nevertheless, Mr. Arnault offers Virginia an alternative to her controlling mother. Furthermore, the Armenian, Arnault is the racialized other in the story. David Ellis believes that Lawrence is suggesting that “only someone of his age and different cultural background could be strong enough to defeat the power which Rachel Bodoin represents” (416). At one point, speaking through the consciousness of Mrs. Bodoin, the narrator says that Mr. Arnault is “like a slave” (VG 116). Langston Hughes would have noticed such racialized diction. While Hughes did not create an escape from the white parental dominance of enslavement for Bert in “Father and Son,” he would have admired Lawrence’s willingness to shift the power in the story from a domineering parent to a racialized other.

23Lawrence’s Armenian creates the final fissure between Mrs. Bodoin and Virginia. Arnault sensed from his initial meeting with Virginia that he might fill an essential void for Virginia. Though he is much older than her, his paternal character wins her affections. But, Mrs. Bodoin finds his presence disgraceful:

Mrs. Bodoin was really mortified this time. She looked on the Armenian [...] as being outside the class of human beings, and in the class of insects. [...] She could not even squash him, or annihilate him. In scum, there is nothing to squash, for scum is only the unpleasant residue of that which was never anything but squashed. (VG 116)

24I speculate that Hughes perceived Arnault as a hero. After all, Lawrence characterizes Arnault as nearly defeated yet with the fortitude to overcome racial defeat. Also, the Armenian’s consciousness is tribal and timeless:

He was tired, but he was not defeated. He had fought, and won, and lost, and was fighting again, always at a disadvantage. He belonged to a defeated race which accepts defeat, but which gets its own back by cunning. He was the father of sons, the head of a family. [...] He was not alone, and so you could not lay your finger on him. His whole consciousness was patriarchal and tribal. And somehow, he was humble, but he was indestructible. (VG 116)

25The Armenian sees a “lost child” in Virginia and thinks of her as a “fatherless waif.” For himself, “he was tribal father, father through all the ages” (VG 116). Hughes’ craving for the type of social power demonstrated by the Armenian satisfied the American author. The satiation constructed by Lawrence must have been particularly poignant to Hughes, as an exile, longing for home, a home about which he sometimes felt powerless because of the “negro question.”

26D.H. Lawrence’s “Mother and Daughter” also seems to have prompted Langston Hughes to write another story, “Mother and Child.” Once again, Hughes’ title seems to derive from Lawrence’s. Hughes sets “Mother and Child” at the birth of a mulatto child. Douglass, an African American, had impregnated “poor” Mrs. Carter, who has just had her baby. No one has seen the baby yet. The women at the scene of the birth predict that Douglass will be harmed if he does not leave town once the child is revealed. Douglass, like Bert in “Father and Son,” stubbornly remains. The scene ends with the women in the room singing a Negro spiritual. The reader is left with an ominous feeling as the women sing to Jesus; the problem of the mulatto haunts the ominous future of Hughes’ social landscape. In this story, the community itself is the domineering parent looming over both the newborn mulatto and the black father. The reader is to assume that the black father and the mulatto son’s future will involve strife and untimely death, a result Hughes depicts straightforwardly in “Father and Son.”

27A third story in The Ways of White Folks that draws on Lawrence’s “Mother and Daughter” is “Cora Unashamed.” Cora Jenkins, a black woman “owned” by the Studevant family, is “one of the Jenkins niggers.” Having no romantic prospects in her town, she eventually has a child by Joe, a transitory figure not in town for long. The child is another mulatto: Joe is white but is like “some kind of foreigner.” Like Lawrence’s Armenian, Mr. Arnault, Joe is the other even though he is white. Lawrence provides Hughes with a model of the other without necessarily constricting the other to the place of the African American. In the story, Cora’s child dies. Cora, left tragically yearning at her loss, turns her affections toward Jessie, the underachieving daughter of the Studevants. Jessie is “slow” but finds comfort in Cora’s love. When Jessie herself becomes pregnant to a “Greek ice-cream maker’s son,” her proper white family will not accept the young couple’s love. Cora’s loving advice is kept from Jessie and she is taken to the city for an abortion. Shortly afterwards, she dies. At Jessie’s funeral, Cora’s outburst ends her relationship with the Studevants. She is left with little but her dignity. Like “Father and Son” and “Mother and Child,” Hughes’ “Cora Unashamed” concludes hopelessly.

28The Lovely Lady stories served as the impetus for Hughes’ collection. However, Lawrence could only take Hughes so far. The context necessarily imposed on Hughes’ characters reveals the racist parameters that the entire culture institutionally supported. The societal impositions that Virginia must overcome in “Mother and Daughter” pale in comparison. This explains the essential problem facing the black artist during the time of the Harlem Renaissance, a problem that persists today. The challenge for the black artist is to work toward equality, intellectually, in a culture that so often does not respect him.

29After reading D.H. Lawrence, Hughes believed that he could “write stories like [Lawrence’s] about folks in America.” D.H. Lawrence’s constant suggestion of “confidence and self-assurance,” his voice that “forces us to ask questions about love and power” (Cushman and Jackson 3), was more powerful to Langston Hughes than any other he had encountered. I believe that Hughes unquestionably made use of Lawrence’s “Mother and Daughter,” with a particular eye toward the Armenian. This influence is most important as an act that spurred on Hughes’ ongoing project about the “negro.” Langston Hughes returned from Russia to the United States shortly after this Lawrentian period of short story writing. By the time he arrived in America, several of the stories written under Lawrence’s influence had been accepted for publication. Hughes’ own testimony concerning Lawrence’s influence on these stories is irrefutable.

30Even without Hughes’ specific recognition of Lawrence’s influence in his second autobiography, a comparison of the two authors would be interesting, for Lawrence had written much that would have interested Hughes. In “America, Listen to Your Own,” Lawrence urges American authors to turn from the constrictive influences of European art toward its own soil where “the golden glories” of Europe might give way to new “inspiration.” Specifically, Lawrence urges Americans to turn toward its nearly annihilated self:

Let Americans turn to America, and to that very America which has been rejected and almost annihilated. Do they want to draw sustenance for the future? They will never draw it from the lovely monuments of our European past. These have an almost fatal narcotic, dream-luxurious effect upon the soul. America must turn again to catch the spirit of her own dark, aboriginal continent. (SCAL 384)

31In the end, one could easily make that case that Lawrence’s indictments of American society exceeded Hughes’. In “Cypresses,” Lawrence defines “evil” using American evidence:

Evil, what is evil?
There is only one evil, to deny life
As Rome denied Etruria
And mechanical America Montezuma still.
(CP 298)

32Although Lawrence’s The Lovely Lady could ultimately provide no specific racial solution for Hughes, Lawrence created the spark that set Hughes’ short stories aflame. The resulting influence helped produce a canonical American collection of stories engaging with the issue of race. An explanation of Hughes’ enthusiastic reading of Lawrence’s stories underscores the powerful appeal of Lawrence’s fiction.

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Bibliographie

Baldwin, Kate A. Beyond the Color Line and the Iron Curtain: Reading Encounters between Black and Red. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

Bloom, Harold. The Anxiety of Influence: A Theory of Poetry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Cushman, Keith and Dennis Jackson, Eds. D.H. Lawrence’s Literary Inheritors. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991.

Ellis, David. D.H. Lawrence: Dying Game, 1922-1930. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Hamalian, Leo. “D.H. Lawrence and Black Writers.” Journal of Modern Literature (Spring 1990), 579-96.

Hughes, Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Knopf, 2004.

—-. The Collected Works of Langston Hughes, Volume 14: Autobiography: I Wonder as I Wander. Joseph McLaren, Ed. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2003.

—-. “The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain.” Nation 122 (June 23, 1926): 692-94.

—- and Carl Van Vechten. Remember Me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten, 1925-1964. Emily Bernard, Ed. New York: Knopf, 2001.

—-. The Ways of White Folks. New York: Knopf, 1969. (originally published 1934)

Lawrence, D.H. The Complete Poems. New York: Viking Press, 1971.

—-. The Lovely Lady. London: Martin Secker, 1932.

—-. The Lovely Lady. New York: Viking Press, 1933.

—-. Studies in Classic American Literature. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

—-. “Mother and Daughter.” The Virgin and The Gipsy and Other Stories. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. 103-22.

Locke, Alaine, ed. The New Negro: An Interpretation. New York: Albert and Charles Boni, 1925.

Nifong, David Michael. “Narrative Technique and Theory in The Ways of White Folks.” Black American Literature Forum Vol. 15 No. 3. (Autumn, 1981), 93-96.

Olmsted, Jane. “Black Moves, White Ways, Every Body’s Blues: Orphic Power in Langston Hughes’s The Ways of White Folks.” Black Orpheus: Music in African American Fiction from the Harlem Renaissance to Toni Morrison. Saadi A. Simawe, Ed. New York: Garland, 2000.

Ostrom, Hans. Langston Hughes: A Study of the Short Fiction. New York: Twayne, 1993.

Poplawski, Paul. D.H. Lawrence: A Reference Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1996.

Miller, R. Baxter. The Art and Imagination of Langston Hughes. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1989.

Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes: Volume I: 1902-1941: I, Too, Sing America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Reeve, N.H. Reading Late Lawrence. New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2003.

Rudnick, Lois Palken. Mabel Dodge Luhan: New Woman, New Worlds. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.

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Notes

1 Hamalian discusses five authors in order to establish Lawrence’s influence on major facets of their work: Claude McKay “never made it a secret that [...] above all, Lawrence [was] his favorite” (584). Jean Toomer “had already come under the influence of Lawrence “when he was writing [...] Cane” (585), a book which “clearly shows the impress of Lawrence” (586). Richard Wright’s “Native Son reveals how well Wright mastered this difficult style while thoroughly absorbing Lawrence” (592). Ralph Ellison “may have drawn the idea for his masterpiece [Invisible Man] from Lawrence” (593-94). As for Langston Hughes, Hamalian’s five-page discussion of Lawrence’s influence focuses on Hughes’ poetry with conjectures that extend beyond the scope of my study.

2 [...] one to The American Mercury, one to Scribner’s Fiction Parade, and one to Esquire.”

3 The choice of the phrase “chemical reaction” comes from Hughes’ own theorizing in “Father and Son” in The Ways of White Folks.

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Matthew McNees, « Langston Hughes Discovers D.H. Lawrence: The Armenian and Other Examples of Influence », Études Lawrenciennes, 41 | 2010, 207-223.

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Matthew McNees, « Langston Hughes Discovers D.H. Lawrence: The Armenian and Other Examples of Influence », Études Lawrenciennes [En ligne], 41 | 2010, mis en ligne le 24 janvier 2014, consulté le 29 mai 2017. URL : http://lawrence.revues.org/158 ; DOI : 10.4000/lawrence.158

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Matthew McNees

University of North Carolina at Greensboro, USA

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