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The Poetic Voices of Love Poems and Others

Keith Cushman
p. 61-76

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1Love Poems and Others, published by Duckworth in February 1913, was D.H. Lawrence’s third book and first book of poetry. For a number of reasons Love Poems and Others has attracted scant critical attention. Perhaps most notably, Lawrence did not select or arrange the thirty-two poems that comprise the volume. Furthermore, because Love Poems and Others, Amores (1916), and New Poems (1918) were mostly carved out of the same college poetry notebooks, discussion of the poems of Love Poems and Others ordinarily gets lumped into a more general discussion of Lawrence’s early poetry. In the bargain Love Poems and Others does not exist as a discrete poetry monograph in Lawrence’s Collected Poems (1928), the source for the Penguin Collected Poems (1964, 1971). In late 1927-early 1928 Lawrence revised the poems of Love Poems—some quite substantially—and dispersed them among the “Rhyming Poems” in the Collected Poems. A person who wants to read Love Poems and Others will almost certainly need to visit the Special Collections section of a major university library.

2Nevertheless, it is surprising that Love Poems and Others has been so overlooked. The book figured significantly in an important moment in Lawrence’s life and career. By the beginning of 1913 he had been with Frieda for over seven months. Feeling personally happy and professionally launched, he eagerly awaited Duckworth’s publication of both Love Poems and Others and Sons and Lovers. As James T. Boulton has observed, “the completion and then the publication of Love Poems and Others in February and Sons and Lovers in May 1913 powerfully fortified Lawrence’s self-confidence” (1L 19). Lawrence believed that these two books would establish him as both a new poet to be reckoned with and a major novelist.

3In Acts of Attention (1972), Sandra Gilbert remarks that “we do not find a steady, orderly growth in poetic strength throughout Lawrence’s early period, but rather a seemingly chaotic search for “self-achievement” in the course of which the young poet often experimented simultaneously with a number of different styles and subjects” (Gilbert 20). If I may adapt a term from sociolinguistics, the young Lawrence wrote in several different poetic language registers. In Self and Sequence (1988), Holly Laird observes that Love Poems and Others “gives a full-length portrait of the debutant poet” (Laird 44). These quotations from the two best books about Lawrence’s poetry are the starting-point for my discussion of Love Poems and Others. But first I want to briefly sketch in the story of the creation of Lawrence’s first book of poetry.

The Making of Love Poems and Others

4Lawrence had sent a manuscript of his early poems to Heinemann at the end of 1911. Lawrence “preferred only to publish about 25 of the best, impersonal pieces” (1L 340). Early in 1912 the poet Walter De la Mare, who had become a publisher’s reader at the press, read Lawrence’s manuscript. De la Mare suggested some necessary “improvements,” but Lawrence “didn’t want to be seriously interrupted” from working on his revision of Sons and Lovers. Poetry took him “a long time to re-cast,” and besides, Heinemann had made it clear that “he was scarcely anxious to put the verses into print […]” They “might as well lie by until such occasion as might see them better worth publishing” (1L 370-71).

5De la Mare put together a monograph and recommended it “strongly” to Heinemann (“Fancy De la Mare recommending anything strongly,” Lawrence commented. “Oh generation of tender feet” [1L 424]). As expected, William Heinemann turned the book down, considering it “far too indecent” (Whistler 192). Instead of returning the manuscript to Lawrence, De la Mare sent it on to Lawrence’s mentor Edward Garnett, who worked as a publisher’s reader at Duckworth.

6Lawrence had initially been pleased with De la Mare’s selection, but by September 1912 he found it “a bit exquisite […]—à la De la Mare—to convince the critics I was well brought up […]” (1L 455). Garnett apparently stuck to De la Mare’s selection. Garnett gave the book to his son David for further editing. David Garnett added “Violets,” “Lightning,” and the three schoolmaster poems to the collection.

7Lawrence had also suggested a few additional poems for inclusion in Love Poems and Others. He corrected the proofs in October 1912, explaining to Edward Garnett that he “was a bit hurried” and “only made corrections of the most unrespectable lines.” Lawrence thought the book “awfully nice- I loved it” (1L 462). Like Sons and Lovers, Love Poems and Others emerged from a collaborative process.

8Duckworth had already published The Trespasser in May 1912. Lawrence was becoming a new generation house author. By July 1916 Duckworth would have published six of Lawrence’s first nine titles—with The Rainbow the complicated omission.

“A full-length portrait of the debutant poet”

9Walter De la Mare probably gave Love Poems and Others its elegant title. The title is actually quite literal, for 25 Love Poems are followed by seven Others: four Dialect Poems and the series of three poems presented here as The Schoolmaster. One can speculate that De la Mare selected such an abundance of love poems from Lawrence’s manuscript because a collection of love poems would be the best way for a young poet to enter the poetry market (It should also be said that it is difficult to understand how such poems as “Corot,” “Morning Work,” “Transformations,” and “Michael-Angelo” can be construed as love poems).

10As the anonymous reviewer of Love Poems and Others in the Nation observed, the poems are concerned—almost without exception—with “the species of love which is more disturbing and tormenting than delightful” (Draper 56). This is hardly surprising considering that the love poems are about Jessie Chambers, Louie Burrows, and Helen Corke. Holly Laird aptly describes the collection as a “partial account of [Lawrence’s] loves” (Laird 45). The nameless presence of these women gives the book a valedictory quality to the reader who can fill in the blanks. Two poems are about Lawrence’s mother. In “End of Another Home Holiday” the poet is depressed about having to leave his “lonely, greying” mother to return to work in another city (LP xiii). In “Reminder,” he remembers going to his sweetheart [Louie] seeking “escape” and sex as his mother lies dying, only to have her bid him “not to ask for the dour/ Communion” (LP xvii). Such poems as “Lilies in the Fire,” “Coldness in Love,” “Lightning,” “Song Day in Autumn,” “Dream-Confused,” and “Dog-Tired” contribute to the collection’s prevalent moods of sadness, regret, nostalgia, bitterness, and remembered sexual frustration.

11The logic behind the ordering of the thirty-two poems is not always easy to perceive. For the most part the poems that express the young Lawrence’s tangled feelings toward the women in his life are scattered throughout the book. But clusters of poems in various styles and on various subjects are discernible. These clusters clearly aim to show off the range and versatility of the young poet making his debut. The poems give “an accurate measure of Lawrence’s emerging skills, his […] transformations from a struggling apprentice into the experimental and vigorous ‘new’ author of 1913” (Laird 45). In the process we hear Lawrence speaking in a variety of poetic voices, writing in a diverse set of poetic language registers.

12Love Poems and Others begins very dramatically with “Wedding Morn,” “Kisses in the Train,” and “Cruelty and Love” (subsequently re-titled “Love on the Farm”).

13All three poems are intensely dramatic and formally complex. Each is extremely different from the other two in a way that showcases the young poet’s versatility and even virtuosity. All three play variations on the complexities of relationships between the sexes.

14“Wedding Morn” is a dramatic monologue in the form of a loose six-stanza ballad. The poem stages the power of the woman over the man. The bride-to-be imagines what it will be like a morning later after her wedding night. Her new husband will be “sleeping satiate,” and “then he will be mine, he will lie/ In my power utterly” (LP I, i-ii). The male speaker in “Kisses in the Train”—a Louie poem—remembers an ecstatic experience of kissing his beloved on the train. This poem stages a passionately blissful meeting between man and woman. The poem consists of six breathless six-line dimeter stanzas:

And still in my nostrils
The scent of her flesh,
And still my wet mouth
Sought her afresh;
And still one pulse
Through the world did thresh. (LP iii)

15The fluttery female speaker in “Cruelty and Love” waits for her brutal husband to return from killing a rabbit. When he arrives, he “caresses my mouth with his fingers, which still smell grim/ of the rabbit’s fur!” and apparently begins to make love. Like the rabbit, the woman is “caught in a snare!” The man’s power over his wife is complete:

his mouth meets mine, and a flood
Of sweet fire sweeps across me, so I drown
Within him, die, and find death good. (LP vii)

16The poetic meter changes throughout the poem to capture the accelerating intensity of the dramatic situation. Today this sensational experiment in machismo and masochism seems calculated, theatrical, and especially unpleasant. In 1915 Lawrence wrote Edward Marsh that the poem didn’t “interest [him] a bit” (2L 401). In 1912 the poem would have been shocking and close to unacceptable. The three strong poems that begin Love Poems and Others announce that a bold new poet has arrived.

17“Aware,” “A Pang of Reminiscence,” and “A White Blossom,” three poems in a distinctly different style, form another poetic cluster. All three are brief (six-line, four-line, four-line) rhyming poems in which the moon (“rising out of the ruddy haze”/ “small and very far from me”/ “white and small as a single jasmine flower” [LP xxiii, xxiv, xxv]) evokes sad thoughts about love. These three poems, originally composed for Jessie Chambers, seem self-consciously Imagistic, and more than a little Japanese.

18The white moon in the poems becomes a violent red in “Red Moon-Rise,” the ambitious poem that immediately follows the Imagistic miniatures in unmistakable counterpoint. The red moon has been born “out of the twofold darkness […] / In one great spasm of birth,” and now “this new, red moon-rise/ […] lies on the knees of the darkness bloody” (LP xxvi). The contrast between the red moon and the white moons of the Imagistic poems (“Wistful and candid, watching me wistfully” [LP xxiv]) could not be more dramatic.

19“Return,” “The Appeal,” and “Repulsed,” three poems of conflicted, frustrated love, form another cluster. The poems are all addressed to the tormenting Helen Corke. She appears as Helen in “The Appeal” and “Repulsed,” and the violin the woman plays in “Return” identifies her as Corke. In “Repulsed,” by far the longest of the three, love gives way to hate: “How we hate each other to-night, hate, you and I” (LP xxxi).

20Another pair of poems, “Corot” and “Michael-Angelo,” demonstrates still another aspect of the young poet’s sensibility. These period meditations on works of art strike me as two of the weakest—and certainly most pompous—poems in the collection. The young provincial, proving that he knows his way around European art history, seems to be self-consciously poeticizing. “Corot” is about the French painter’s Barbizon trees, which “rise tall and taller.” The poem ends with the pat, unconvincing instruction to the reader to “Imitate the magnificent trees/ That speak no word of their rapture, but only/ Breathe largely the luminous breeze” (LP xxxiii-xxxiv). “Michael-Angelo,” filled with archaic poetic diction (“thy,” “thee,” “thine”), describes God’s creation of man as represented in the painting on the Sistine Chapel ceiling. The last stanza includes the conventional, sentimental idea that God “kissed thee, O Man, in a passion of love, and left/ The vivid life of His love in thy mouth and thy nostrils.” This sentiment gives way to the unconventional, rather puzzling concluding line: “Keep then the kiss from the adultress’ theft” (LP xli). Oddly, in Love Poems and Others these two related demonstrations of the poet’s superior culture are separated by four unrelated poems. In the Collected Poems Lawrence situated the poems next to one another.

21Four Hardy-esque dialect poems follow “Michael-Angelo” as a cluster near the end of the book. Readers of Love Poems and Others must have been astonished by these poems. There was no way to imagine that the sensitive, highly literary author of the first twenty-five poems could write narrative poetry in working-class dialect. Only literary insiders could have known where Lawrence had gotten his command of working-class life and dialect. Needless to say, these poems, written in quite another language register altogether, make a significant contribution to the “full-length portrait of the debutant poet.”

22The dialect poems are also reminders that the sensitive young writer from Eastwood could set himself apart as a chronicler of the life of the colliery village. “Odour of Chrysanthemums,” “A Sick Collier,” the colliery plays, and Sons and Lovers are further examples of Lawrence as working-class niche-writer. Edward Garnett encouraged him to take this direction. Lawrence had written the first version of “Violets” early in 1909. When Garnett first saw this poem in the autumn of 1911, he got it into print almost immediately. Lawrence wrote “Whether or Not,” “A Collier’s Wife,” and “The Drained Cup” at Edward Garnett’s house sometime after September 1911, “almost certainly at Garnett’s direct instigation” (Worthen 217).

23If the dialect poems are like miniature short stories, “Whether or Not”—in ten sections occupying nine pages of Love Poems and Others—is more like a miniature novella. In this poem the young Lawrence transposes the almost standard romantic situation of his early poetry and fiction onto working-class life. Lizzie, the main speaker and the fiancée of the young constable Tim, is a predictably virtuous young woman. Tim complains about his frustration:

Hasna ter sent me whoam, when I
Was a’most burstin’ mad o’ my-sen
An’ walkin’ in agony. . . . (LP xlviii)

24Tim has sought relief in the arms of his 45-year-old landlady, who has become pregnant. Lizzie resolves that situation by paying off the landlady, offering to raise the child, and taking the “stubborn jackass” (LP lii) back. “Whether or Not” is one of the poems that William Heinemann would have considered “far too indecent” (Whistler 192).

25All four of the dialect poems could have been categorized as “love poems.” In “Violets,” two sisters, one approving, the other disapproving, discuss the burial of their brother Ted, “Snapped sudden out of all/ His wickedness.” A sobbing “bit of a lass”—apparently Ted’s lover—dropped a “double ’andful of violets, all in a pack/ Ravelled blue and white” (LP xlii-xliii) into the grave. Ted died young, but he died beloved. The title character of “A Collier’s Wife” could almost be Mrs. Bates in “Odour of Chrysanthemums.” The put-upon collier’s wife thinks that the person “knocking at the door” is “nobbut a beggar,” but actually the messenger from the mine has come to report that “’er mester’s/ Got hurt i’ th’ pit” (LP liii). In “The Drained Cup,” a twelve-stanza, ballad-like dramatic monologue a woman is saying good-bye to her fiancé, who is leaving for “the girl who was grander, and better than me/ For marrying— ” (LP lvi).

26In his two reviews of Love Poems and Others Ezra Pound declared “Whether or Not” and “Violets” to be “great art” (Pound 151, Draper 54). He also said that when Lawrence “writes low-life narrative […] there is no English poet under forty who can get within shot of him” (Pound 149). The dialect poems, although unfashionable today, are compelling and genuinely impressive.

27The 1912 reader of Love Poems and Others received one last jolt when he—or more likely she—proceeded directly from the down-to-earth dialect poems with their sound of mostly female working-class voices to the dreamily genteel language register of the schoolmaster’s voice in the three poems that conclude the collection. These poems form a poetic suite, each dramatizing a different schoolmasterly mood. In “A Snowy Day in School” the schoolmaster wonders how he can “answer the challenge of so many eyes!” as the “thick snow” “plunges down/ Awfully” (LP lix). In “The Best of School,” he feels how “sweet it is/ To feel the lads’ looks light on me”:

So do they cleave and cling to me,
So I lead them up, so do they twine
Me up, caress and clothe with free
Fine foliage of lives this life of mine […] (LP lxi)

28But in “The Last Lesson” the schoolmaster is weary of his “pack of unruly hounds.” “No more” can he endure their “dross of indifference” and “scroll/ Of their insults”

29In the end he will “sit and wait for the bell” (LP lxiii-lxiv). This line is also the last line of Love Poems and Others, perhaps suggesting promise of things to come.

30The schoolmaster poems conclude the “full-length portrait of the debutant poet.” I would like to conclude this essay by looking briefly at three poems that I have not discussed: “Song-Day in Autumn,” “Cherry Robbers,” and “Bei Hennef.”

Three poems

“Song-Day in Autumn”

31In a famous passage in D.H. Lawrence: A Personal Record Jessie Chambers remembered a night when she had gone to visit the young Lawrence for a French lesson. Looking at Jessie “with eyes alight” and speaking “softly,” he said, “It will be poetry.” After Jessie excitedly answered, “Well, isn’t that the very greatest thing,” Lawrence responded:

“‘Ah, you say that […] But what will the others say? That
I’m a fool. A collier’s son a poet!’” (Chambers 57)

32I believe that the young Lawrence’s literary insecurity can be discerned in some of his early poetry. A measure of this insecurity is his practice of trying out different poetic styles, language registers, forms, and voices as he searched for his own voice. I’m thinking of such poems as the sentimental Shakespearean sonnet “A Baby Running Barefoot” (first published in Amores), the Hardy-esque “Turned Down” (published as “Perfidy” in Amores), and the peculiarly Swinburnean “Sigh No More” (set aside until New Poems and perhaps a parody). “Transformations,” the portentous three-poem suite in Love Poems and Others (xxxvi-xxxvii), reads like second-hand Whitman. The performative “Cruelty and Love” is a post-Browning dramatic monologue that extends the boundaries of sexuality in literature while making a blunt statement about male-female relationships. Even the dialect poems and the schoolmaster poems are examples of Lawrence adopting different personae (allowing for the fact that in the schoolmaster poems he is a poet without a mask).

33In the practically unknown “Song-Day in Autumn” in Love Poems and Others Lawrence tells the familiar story of a virtuous sweetheart who comes to regret her puritan restraint. Here that story becomes a three-stanza Pre-Raphaelite period poem, replete with roses, dew, daffodils, a bee, the young woman’s auburn hair, and an elaborate rhyme scheme. In the first stanza the maid walks innocently but alluringly:

When the autumn roses
Are heavy with dew,
Before the mist discloses
The leaf’s brown hue,
You would among the laughing hills
Of yesterday
Walk innocent in the daffodils,
Coiffing up your auburn hair
In a puritan fillet, a chaste white snare
To catch and keep me with you there
So far away. (LP xxi)

34By the end of the poem the maid has come to rue her behavior. Her “late bee” is beseeching her to “creep through your loosened hair till he reaches,/ Your heart of dismay” (LP xxii). Lawrence’s later opinion about his “Song-Day in Autumn” is unmistakable. It is the one poem from Love Poems and Others that he left out of the Collected Poems.

“Cherry Robbers”

35Feeling came first in the young Lawrence’s conception of poetry. He explained to Blanche Jennings that his goal as a poet was not to write poems made out of “scraps sweetly moulded in easy Plaster of Paris sentiment.” Instead he wanted to “chip verses out of the living rock of his own feeling.” He described his early poems as “rather pretty, but not suave; there is some blood in them” (1L 63).

36The question is how much blood can actually be found in Love Poems and Others. In August 1912, David Garnett wondered as much when he jokingly suggested “Asphodels as a title.” Lawrence chimed in with his own self-mocking suggestions: “‘Asphodels among the Cabbages’—or ‘Asphodels in the Kitchen Garden’” (1L 442). He believed that he was still constrained by the conventions of the day even as he was working to move beyond those conventions in search of his own voice.

37Contemporary readers were struck by the intensity of Love Poems and Others.

38Walter De la Mare, reviewing the book in TLS, praised the book for its “imagination, apprehension, economy of means, and often a delicate, ecstatic beauty.” But he also found the poems “clogged with excess of feeling. Nerves are on edge, the heart throbs heavily against its bars. Excess of all kinds is [the book’s] weakness” (Whistler 194). Truly, nerves are on edge in these poems, but to readers almost a century later most of the poems seem awfully genteel.

39“Cruelty and Love” is anything but genteel, although, as I have suggested, the poem seems inauthentic. The passionate “Kisses on the Train” and the highly energized, Poe-esque “Lightning” definitely “have some blood in them.” So does “Cherry Robbers,” the fourth poem in Love Poems and Others and one of Lawrence’s best-known poems.

40“Cherry Robbers” stages a version of the cherry-tree scene in the “Test on Miriam” chapter of Sons and Lovers. The poem consists of three quatrains, each beginning with the words “Under the,” with rhyming five-stress and three-stress lines. “Under the long, dark boughs” of the tree

like jewels red
In the hair of an Eastern girl
Shine strings of crimson cherries, as if had bled
Blood-drops beneath each curl.

41“Three dead birds lie” rather ominously “Under the glistening cherries.” And nearby

Under the haystack a girl stands laughing at me,
With cherries hung round her ears—
Offering me her scarlet fruit: I will see
If she has any tears. (LP viii)

42It is a relief to encounter a young woman in Love Poems and Others who is not a virtuous, passive maiden. Indeed this young woman aggressively offers the speaker “her scarlet fruit”—perhaps to her eventual sorrow. In Sandra Gilbert’s words, “the fruit the girl offers, the poem implies, is more than the innocent cherries she hangs round her ears; and the young man who plucks the fruit of her sexuality—her virginity—will draw blood in more ways than one” (Gilbert 51). The girl who is enticingly offering the speaker her “scarlet fruit” may wind up in tears. The poem connects the fruit of life to pain, suffering, and even death. “Cherry Robbers” is colorful but not pretty. Although the poem is concise and its language simple, “Cherry Robbers” dramatizes complex issues that Lawrence would soon be exploring in The Rainbow and Women in Love.

“Bei Hennef”

43On 15 October 1912 Lawrence wrote Garnett that Frieda “refuses to have sufficient respect for [Love Poems and Others]—but there, she would. There are in it too many heroines other than herself” (1L 462). But surprisingly, Frieda is also present in the collection. The ninth poem in Love Poems and Others is another of Lawrence’s best-known poems, “Bei Hennef.” In 1917 the poem would find its proper place in Look! We Have Come Through!

44In the same letter to Garnett, Lawrence commented, “Queer, there is one poem to her ‘Bei Hennef’—I wish it had been the last in the book” (1L 462). Lawrence returned to this thought in his Preface to the Collected Poems: “In 1912 begins the new cycle of Look! We Have Come Through! Of this volume the first few poems belong to England and the end of the death-experience, but ‘Bei Hennef’, written in May 1912, by a river in the Rhineland, starts the new cycle” (CP 28).

45On 11 May 1912, Lawrence wrote a postcard to Frieda from Hennef as he waited for the train to Waldbröl: “Now, for the first time during today, my detachment leaves me, and I know I only love you. The rest is nothing at all. And the promise of life with you is all richness. Now I know” (1L 398). It is genuinely disconcerting to find “Bei Hennef,” another part of this moment in the Rhineland, in Love Poems and Others.

46“Bei Hennef” is like no other poem in the collection. It is a free verse poem in which the considerable but understated feeling finds its own form. It seems as if the poem is going to end liturgically:

You are the call and I am the answer,
You are the wish, and I the fulfillment,
You are the night, and I the day.

47But Lawrence interrupts himself in order to try to express the situation in its glory and complexity as truthfully as possible:

What else—it is perfect enough,
It is perfectly complete,
You and I,
What more—
Strange, how we suffer in spite of this! (LP xviii)

48As the poem leaves Edwardian poetic convention and all self-conscious poeticizing behind, it seems to burst out of the confines of Love Poems and Others. The language of everyday speech suffices. The poet of “Bei Hennef” is no longer a debutant.

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Bibliographie

Works Cited

Chambers, Jessie. D.H. Lawrence: A Personal Record by E. T. London: Jonathan Cape, 1935.

Draper, R. P., ed. D.H. Lawrence: The Critical Heritage. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1970.

Gilbert, Sandra M. Acts of Attention: The Poems of D.H. Lawrence. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972.

Laird, Holly A. Self and Sequence: The Poetry of D.H. Lawrence. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1988.

Lawrence, D.H. The Complete Poems of D.H. Lawrence. Ed. Vivian de Sola Pinto and F. Warren Roberts. New York: Penguin, 1971.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence. Volume I: 1901-13. Ed. James T. Boulton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979.

Lawrence, D.H. The Letters of D.H. Lawrence. Volume II: 1913-16. Ed. George J. Zytaruk and James T. Boulton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Lawrence, D.H. Love Poems and Others. London: Duckworth, 1913.

Pound, Ezra. Review of Love Poems and Others. Poetry, Volume 2, Number 4 (1913). 149-51.

Whistler, Theresa. Imagination of the Heart: The Life of Walter De la Mare. London: Duckworth, 1993.

Worthen, John. D.H. Lawrence: The Early Years 1885-1912. Cambridge: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

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Keith Cushman, « The Poetic Voices of Love Poems and Others », Études Lawrenciennes, 44 | 2013, 61-76.

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Keith Cushman, « The Poetic Voices of Love Poems and Others », Études Lawrenciennes [En ligne], 44 | 2013, mis en ligne le 01 avril 2014, consulté le 18 novembre 2017. URL : http://lawrence.revues.org/187 ; DOI : 10.4000/lawrence.187

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Keith Cushman

Keith Cushman, Professor of English at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, has written or edited seven books about Lawrence. He is Past President of the D.H. Lawrence Society of North America and a recipient of the Harry T. Moore Award for Lifetime Achievement in and Encouragement of D.H. Lawrence Studies.

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